- Nuga, M, Metspalu, P, Org, A, Leetmaa, K (2015). Planning post-summurbia: From spontaneous pragmatism to collaborative planning?Moravian Geographical Reports, 2015, 23(4), p 36-46
Abstract: The possibilities to apply collaborative planning frameworks in formerly strictly planned areas that have experienced spontaneous transformations since the demise of the Soviet Union are examined in this paper. The enquiry is based on a case study of the Tartu region in Estonia, former socialist summerhouse settlements (‘summurbia’), which are experiencing a transition towards permanent residence resulting in a new yearround form of suburbia. Both the residents and local planning authorities were interviewed in order to understand the prevailing planning and building activities, as well as the social relations between these stakeholders. The collaborative planning process is then elaborated by exploring the social dynamics and learned practices of the local residents.
Marcińczak, S, Tammaru, T, Strömgren, M, Lindgren, U (2015). Changing patterns of residential and workplace segregation in the Stockholm metropolitan area. Urban Geography, 36 (7), 969−992, 02723638.2015.1012364.
Abstract: Immigrant–native segregation is present in the spaces in which individuals from different ethnic/racial groups practice their everyday lives; interact with others and develop their ethnic, social and spatial networks. The overwhelming majority of academic research on immigrant segregation has focused on the residential domain, thus largely overlooking other arenas of daily interaction. The present study contributes to the emerging literature on immigrant residential and workplace segregation by examining changes in patterns of residential and workplace segregation over time. We draw our data from the Stockholm metropolitan region, Sweden’s main port of entry for immigrants. The results suggest a close association between residential and workplace segregation. Immigrant groups that are more segregated at home are also more segregated in workplace neighborhoods. More importantly, we found that a changing segregation level in one domain tends to involve a similar trend in the other domain.
Marcińczak, Szymon; Tammaru, Tiit; Novák, Jakub; Gentile, Michael; Kovács, Zoltan; Temelová, Jana; Valatka, Vytautas; Kährik, Anneli; Szabó, Balaz (2015). Patterns of Socioeconomic Segregation in the Capital Cities of Fast-Track Reforming Postsocialist Countries. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105 (1), 183−202, 00045608.2014.968977.
Abstract: Socioeconomic disparities have been rising on both sides of the Atlantic for the last forty years. This study illuminates the relationship among economic inequality, other contextual and institutional factors, and socioeconomic intraurban segregation in Eastern Europe. We draw our empirical evidence from the capital cities of so-called fast-track reforming postsocialist countries: Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, and the Czech Republic. The analysis consists of two stages. First, we use the traditional indexes of segregation to assess the global levels of socioeconomic segregation in the case cities. Second, we investigate the global patterns and local geographies of socioeconomic residential intermixing and introduce a typology of neighborhoods based on the socio-occupational composition of their residential tracts. Despite rapidly growing income inequality, the levels of socioeconomic segregation in the postsocialist city are either low or very low. The scale of segregation differs between the cities and the patterns of residential intermixing in the large cities of central and Eastern Europe are fundamentally different from those found in the Baltic states. The results lead to two important conclusions. One is that the link between socioeconomic distance and spatial distance in postsocialist cities is moderately sensitive to the level of economic inequality and to other contributory factors. The other key finding is that inertia effects have offset the immediate catalyzing effect of economic liberalization, globalization, and growing socioeconomic inequality on the patterns of segregation, at least in the first decade after the collapse of socialism.
- Leetmaa, K., Kriszan, A., Nuga, M., Burdack, J. (2015). Strategies to Cope with Shrinkage in the Lower End of the Urban Hierarchy in Estonia and Central Germany. European Planning Studies, 23(1), Special Issue: Responding to Tough Times: Policy and Planning Strategies in Shrinking Cities
Abstract: Population shrinkage has become an unavoidable process in many cities and calls for new planning approaches. Typically, economic restructuring causes small urban centres in peripheral locations to lose economic functions and population. In small towns however, social capital has been considered as a specific resource. In this article, we focus on small postsocialist towns in Estonia and Central Germany that have mostly experienced severe shrinkage since the end of state socialism, especially during the first transition decade. We aim to clarify to what extent local planning strategies accept the ongoing shrinkage and how various forms of local social capital have contributed to these strategies and the development of the localities in general. Interviews with different stakeholders in selected towns in Estonia and Germany revealed that shrinkage has not been systematically accepted in local planning. Instead, planning is strongly steered by the external financial resources to strengthen the remaining urbanity. In all towns, specific key development niches have been found in the 2000s to compensate for the peripherality. We also demonstrate that local public institutions need to adjust their governance culture to the existing specific local forms of social capital in order to achieve synergy between local actors.
- Leetmaa, K., Tammaru, T., Hess, D. B. (2014). Preferences Toward Neighbor Ethnicity and Affluence: Evidence from an Inherited Dual Ethnic Context in Post-Soviet Tartu, Estonia. Annals of the Association of American Geographers.
Abstract: In the post-Soviet era, cities in Central and Eastern Europe inherited a rather undifferentiated sociospatial urban landscape that contrasts with the highly segregated cities in Western Europe and North America. In the Soviet era, ethnic segregation emerged as migrants were prioritized in public housing allocation. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, however, changed the economic and political position of those in-migrants. This study explores how inherited segregation patterns have evolved in the city of Tartu, Estonia. We use data from (1) 1998, 2008, and 2013 municipal surveys about stated preferences with regard to residential settings for the two main ethno-linguistic groups in Estonia (the Estonian majority and the mainly Russian-speaking minority population), and (2) the 2000 and 2011 national census that allows us to track changes in actual segregation patterns. We study two dimensions of preferences and segregation—ethnicity and neighbor affluence—and apply bivariate probit regression for the analysis of stated preferences. We detect a stronger preference among the majority population to live in its own language environment compared to minorities. Minority avoidance attitudes were strongest immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union and restoration of Estonia’s statehood; by the end of the 2000s the preferences of the two groups toward neighbor ethnicity converged. Members of the majority population, however, prefer affluent environments more than minorities do. Despite converging preferences, the actual levels of segregation have increased in Tartu. This suggests that socioeconomic differences drive patterns of ethnic segregation even when preferences with regard to ethnicity have become more tolerant.
- Kamenik, K; Tammaru, T.; Toomet, O. (2014), Ethnic segmentation in leisure time activities in Estonia. Leisure Studies, DOI: 10.1080/02614367.2014.938773
Abstract: This paper examines the differences between the leisure time activities of members of the minority and majority populations of Estonia. Because people only meet when they undertake similar activities, it is important for social cohesion to identify the kinds of activities that different ethnic groups engage in during their free time. The data for this study were obtained from the Estonian Time Use Surveys of 2000 and 2010. In this paper, we analyse rates of participation in various cultural events, entertainment activities, outdoor recreation and sport. Our analysis reveals important ethnic differences in almost all leisure activities that partly stem from the uneven distribution of minorities over settlement types. Less than half of the differences relate to socio-economic status and individual wealth. The rest of ethnic segmentation in leisure activities can be attributed to preferences, differential residential patterns of ethnic groups over Estonia’s regions and the feeling of being a stranger in leisure time places where other ethnic groups are already over-represented.
- Leetmaa, K.; Nuga, M.; Org, A. (2013), Entwicklungsstrategien und soziales Kapital in den schrumpfenden Kleinstädten Südestlands. Ifl Forum, Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde, Leipzig, 49(2), 31 – 52
- Hedberg, C.; Tammaru, T. (2013), ‘Neighbourhood Effects’ and ‘City Effects’: The Entry of Newly Arrived Immigrants into the Labour Market. Urban Studies, 50(6), 1163 – 1180
Abstract: An important debate in current research and policy focuses on the role of urban residential segregation on the social mobility of immigrants. Much focus has been on ‘neighbourhood effects’ and on how spatial variations within the city affect individual careers. This paper adds the analysis of variations of labour market incorporation between cities. The labour market careers of one migrant cohort to Sweden are analysed, where the analysis of ‘neighbourhood effects’ and ‘city effects’ are studied jointly, using a longitudinal database and discrete-time event history analysis. The results show that labour market participation increases slowly over time and there are large variations due to migrant origin, gender and education. Both ‘neighbourhood effects’ and ‘city effects’ were significant, but whereas the former decreased over time, the ‘city effect’ was robust. Accordingly, contextual aspects of the individual city need to be included in the analysis of neighbourhood effects.
- Tammaru, T; van Ham, M.; Leetmaa, K.; Kährik, A.; Kamenik, K. (2013), The Ethnic Dimensions of Suburbanisation in Estonia. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39(5), 845 – 862
Abstract: Large-scale suburbanisation is a relatively recent phenomenon in East Central Europe and is responsible for major socio-spatial changes in metropolitan areas. Little is known about the ethnic dimensions of suburbanisation, despite the existence of often sizeable Russian minority populations in some member-states of the former Soviet Union. We use individual-level Estonian census data from the year 2000 in order to investigate the ethnic dimensions of suburbanisation. The results show that ethnic minorities have a considerably lower probability of suburbanising compared to the majority population, and minorities are less likely to move to rural municipalities―the main sites of suburban change―in the suburban ring of cities.
- Anniste, K.; Tammaru, T.; Pungas, E.; Paas, T. (2012). Emigration after EU enlargement: was there a brain drain effect in the case of Estonia? University of Tartu, Faculty of Economics and Business, Administration, Working Paper Series, 87, 1 – 20.
Abstract: The study analyzes changes in emigration from Estonia in order to shed more light on East-West migration, contributing to the main debate on “brain drain” by focusing on educational differences in emigration. We use anonymous individual level data for all emigrants from the register-based Estonian Emigration Database compiled by Statistics Estonia for the period 2000-2008. The analysis shows that there has been no significant brain drain from Estonia as a new EU member state during this period. Moreover, we find evidence of a spreading of the emigration norm into a wider range of population groups, including the less educated, since Estonia joined the European Union in 2004.
- Pungas, E.; Toomet, O.; Tammaru, T.; Anniste, K. (2012). Are Better Educated Migrants Returning? Evidence from Multi-Dimensional Education Data. NORFACE Working Papers, No. 2012-18, 1 – 33.
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between migrants’ education and their intentions to return. Previous research has presented mixed evidence on the association between the level of education and return migration. This study takes a multidimensional approach by analysing, aside from the level of education, the type and country of education and over-education as predictors of intentions to return based on a unique survey of Estonian migrants in Finland. The results indicate that the level of education is not related to the tendency to return. The most important education variable that shapes return migration is over-education ― migrants who work below their training express higher intentions to return back home. We also find some evidence that education obtained in the host country improves the socialisation prospects later on.
- Anniste, K.; Tammaru, T.; Pungas, E.; Paas, T. (2012). Dynamics of educational differences in emigration from Estonia to the old EU member states. Trames : Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, 16(1), 219 – 235
Abstract: This study examines the changes in emigration from Estonia, focusing on differences in the level of education of migrants, shedding more light on East-West migration, in particular the migration of skilled labour. We used anonymous individual-level data for all emigrants from the register-based Estonian Emigration Database compiled by Statistics Estonia for the period 2000–2008. The analysis shows that Estonia suffered no significant loss of skilled labour from Estonia during this period. There is also evidence that emigration has spread into a wider range of population groups, including the less educated, since Estonia joined the European Union in 2004.
- Lux, M., Kährik, A., Sunega, P. (2012). Housing Restitution and Privatisation: Both Catalysts and Obstacles to the Formation of Private Rental Housing in the Czech Republic and Estonia. International Journal of Housing Policy 12(2)
Abstract: The return of property expropriated during the communist period to previous owners or to their descendants (property restitution) led to the quick emergence of a private rental sector in those post-communist countries that applied a physical form of property restitution soon after 1990. The Czech Republic and Estonia are examples of such countries. Within just a few years, as a result of property restitution, a private rental sector grew out of almost non-existence to become a significant part of the countries’ total housing stock. However, the character of this sector remained different from the private rental sector found in countries with advanced economies – especially owing to specific rent regulation, tenant protection and, albeit indirectly, public housing privatisation. This article analyses and compares the genesis of private rental tenure in the Czech Republic and Estonia. Its main goal is to demonstrate how state regulations and interventions have influenced tenure choice, the formation of social norms, and thus the permanent perception of private renting. In both transition countries private renting gradually acquired the character of a transitional and residual form of housing. State interventions early on in the transition were probably the most significant factors behind the fact that private renting did not establish itself as a real tenure alternative to owner-occupied housing.
- Gentile, M.; Tammaru, T.; van Kempen, R. (2012). Heteropolitanization: Social and spatial change in Central and East European Cities. Cities, 29(5), 291-299. DOI:10.1016/j.cities.2012.05.005
- Kährik, A.; Leetmaa, K.; Tammaru, T. (2012). Residential decision-making and satisfaction among new suburbanites in the Tallinn urban region, Estonia. Cities, 29(1), 49-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2011.07.005
Abstract: The prevailing research into suburbanisation in former centrally planned countries explains suburban change by referring to macro-level factors that are evident in the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. Findings show that in a neo-liberal environment, the public sector plays only a modest role in residential planning; the key players are developers and banks. This study takes a different approach by focusing on the micro-level factors that lead households to move from the city to new, post-Soviet suburban settlements, specifically in the Tallinn urban region of Estonia. A sample of data from the University of Tartu’s 2006 New Residential Areas Survey is herein analysed in order to ascertain the reasons for moving, the criteria used in the selection of a particular suburban settlement, and the subsequent levels of residential satisfaction. The results show that, for the period in question, housing adjustment moves were more prevalent than induced moves triggered by life-course changes. In addition, it was found that, generally, new suburbanites were satisfied with their housing and neighbourhoods. However, they were less satisfied with the provision of local services, especially when their new settlements lay at a distance from pre-transition settlements.
- Hess, D. B.; Tammaru T.; Leetmaa, K., (2012). Ethnic differences in housing in post-Soviet Tartu, Estonia. Cities, 29(5), 327-333. DOI: DOI:10.1016/j.cities.2011.10.005.
Abstract: Social and ethnic stratification has changed significantly in the former Soviet space since 1991. This research analyses the evolution of inherited ethnic differences in housing during two post-Soviet decades in Tartu, Estonia. The results suggest that ethnic inequalities in dwelling type as well as in housing size per person decreased between 1989 and 2008. More minorities now occupy single-family houses than at the end of the Soviet period. Access to modern facilities within dwelling units, however, is still higher among the minority population. We conclude that inherited ethnic differences in housing conditions were pronounced and, despite evidence of decreasing housing inequalities, subsequent changes have been too modest to overcome inherited patterns of housing segmentation from the Soviet period. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Leetmaa, K.; Brade, I.; Anniste, K.; Nuga, M. (2012). Socialist Summer-home Settlements in Post-socialist Suburbanisation. Urban Studies, 49(1), 3-21, DOI:10.1177/0042098010397399.
Abstract: The construction of new housing has been the most visible of all the spatial changes to have affected the post-socialist suburban landscape. It is argued in this article that former summer-home settlements are a hidden component of contemporary residential suburbanisation in former socialist countries. The building of summer or weekend homes (dacha settlements in the former Soviet Union) around major cities for urban residents was a specific feature of socialist metropolitan planning. After removing construction restrictions, the stock of vacant dachas started to support the supply side of the suburban housing market. While dachas were a reserve of affordable housing during the recession of the 1990s, they served as a stock of building plots during the construction boom of the mid 2000s. In the Tallinn Metropolitan Area, former second homes are even more important than new post-1991 residential areas in terms of giving access to detached houses to the metropolitan population.
- Temelová, J.; Dvorˇáková, N. (2012). Residential satisfaction of elderly in the city centre: The case of revitalizing neighbourhoods in Prague. Cities, 29, 310 – 317.
Abstract: While the historical cores of the post-socialist cities of Central and Eastern Europe are adapting to the invasion of tourism and proﬁtable companies, dynamic regeneration is altering the character of the inner-city neighbourhoods from working class peripheries to modern multi-functional urban sub-centres. Changing residential environments, landscapes and functions affect the daily lives and residential satisfaction of the local population, and especially of the low-income and elderly people facing mobility restrictions. This research evaluates the residential satisfaction of the elderly in two Prague city centre neighbourhoods that experienced dramatic changes in their residential environment during the post-socialist transition: the historical core, which has been exposed to massive touristiﬁcation and commercialization, and a former working class neighbourhood that has been experiencing rapid regeneration. The local accessibility of services, public spaces, housing and social support was examined through a questionnaire survey. Contrary to our expectations based on the existing literature review, the results show that, despite the rapid revitalization processes, the elderly are fairly satisﬁed with their residential environment in both neighbourhood types.