National URBACT Point in Estonia is now at University of Tartu, Centre for Migration and Urban Studies.
URBACT enables cities to work together to develop new and sustainable solutions to major urban challenges, through networking, sharing knowledge, and building capacities for urban practitioners. It is funded by the European Regional Development Fund and EU Partner and Member States since 2002.
For more information: http://urbact.eu/urbact-eesti or www.urbact.eu
NUP Estonia contact person: Kadri Leetmaa, firstname.lastname@example.org
Human Development Report 2016/2017 “Estonia in the Age of Migration” is readable online in both Estonian and English on www.inimareng.ee/en.
Main messages of the Human Development Report 2016/2017
- Well-being and immigration are closely related to each other and, according to the human development index, human well-being in Estonia in the last 25 years is one of the fastest growing in Europe.
- Therefore, an image of Estonia as a country of emigration is now crumbling; there are more and more people who want to live in Estonia.
- Immigration cannot be a magic wand that will solve all the problems in Estonia.
- Estonia is pressing to adopt so-called a Cinderella-type migration policy, which is not viable. Cinderella did all the unpleasant work in the stepfamily, but she did not succeed in integrating into the family. If we look at the recent history of Estonia and to what is happening in other European cities, we can see how problematic a Cinderella-type immigration policy is.
- We have to consider immigration; however, the cornerstone of economic sustainability, in particular, is climbing up the value chain, which will also increase the tax revenue.
- The base of demographic sustainability is, primarily, a family policy, and there cannot be too much of this. A housing policy is one of the unused measures.
- Cultural and lingual sustainability can be assured if we take a broader view of the Estonian identity. In the migration era, the Estonian identity is no longer uniquely linked to the territory of Estonia. Today, Estonia is a multinational country, with its interconnected villages and towns both abroad and in Estonia.
On 28th december our PhD student Mari Nuga defended her doctoral thesis “Soviet-era summerhouses. On homes and planning in post-socialist suburbia”
Supervisor: Senior Research Fellow in Human Geography Kadri Leetmaa
Oponent: Professor Craig Young (Manchester Metropolitan University, UK)
Full thesis available here: http://dspace.ut.ee/handle/10062/53241
Dr. Daniel B. Hess and Rector of University of Tartu Volli Kalm
The Centre for Migration and Urban Studies at the University of Tartu is pleased to announce the appointment of Dr. Daniel B. Hess as a new Director. The Centre explores contemporary challenges facing urban regions including migration, residential mobility, housing and neighbourhood change, as well as the integration of immigrants and ethnic minorities across multiple life domains (such as places of residence and work, as well as intermarriages).
“We have worked with Daniel successfully for several years already,” said Professor Tiit Tammaru the outgoing Director. “We were very happy when he received a prestigious Marie Skłodowska-Curie fellowship from the European Commission that allows us to elevate our collaborative research to a higher and more competitive level.”
Dr. Hess is a Professor in the School of Architecture and Planning at the University at Buffalo, State University of New York. In Estonia, his research focuses on the formation, evolution and current planning challenges of large panel housing areas. He opted to join the Centre because its excellent international reputation. “I am delighted by the high quality of research in the Centre,” said Dr. Hess. “There are five major European-funded projects running at the moment addressing various aspects of mobility, segregation and planning, and the team is young and energetic. Estonia is a small country, and this allows the researchers to be closely linked to decision makers, making research socially relevant in impressive ways.”
The Dean of Social Sciences at the University of Tartu, Professor Raul Eamets, appreciates the appointment of Daniel Hess very much. He said, “One of the important strategic goals of the University of Tartu is the improve its international visibility. Dr. Hess is the first non-EU scholar in the Marie Skłodowska-Curie fellowship program’s history to win the award at the University of Tartu. We warmly welcome him as the new Director of the the Centre for Migration and Urban Studies and we wish him a fruitful stay in Tartu.”
For more information contact: Daniel B. Hess email@example.com
Architecture and urban planning students from University of Buffalo and Alfred State College came to visit us at the end of May. The group was led by professor and our visiting scholar Daniel Hess. During the visit the students had a tour in Tallinn, where they learned about city and transportation planning. They also visited Kiviõli, Narva, Sillamäe and spent a week in Tartu.
At University of Tartu Geography department the students started working on their planning projects. At the end of the 48hour planning challenge the students presented their recommendations for Urban Regeneration Schemes in Tartu City Centre (presented by teams of Estonian and American students). Students and professor Hess at Narva.
Preparing the planning projects at University of Tartu Geography department.
Students presenting their recommendations for Urban Regeneration Schemes in Tartu City Centre.
Coline Dalimier from Lille University of Science and Technology finished her urban planning internship at CMUS. Before leaving, Coline made a presentation about the situation of suburban areas near Paris. Renewing the panel housing areas in the suburbia of Paris is difficult because a lot of asbestos has been used and the renovations would be very expensive due to that. Also there is a problem of poverty and the areas are turning into ghettos.
Slides from the presentation are available here.
Planning post-summurbia: From spontaneous pragmatism to collaborative planning?
Moravian Geographical Reports, 2015, 23(4), p 36-46
Mari Nuga, Pille Metspalu, Anette Org, Kadri Leetmaa
Abstract: The possibilities to apply collaborative planning frameworks in formerly strictly planned areas that have experienced spontaneous transformations since the demise of the Soviet Union are examined in this paper. The enquiry is based on a case study of the Tartu region in Estonia, former socialist summerhouse settlements (‘summurbia’), which are experiencing a transition towards permanent residence resulting in a new yearround form of suburbia. Both the residents and local planning authorities were interviewed in order to understand the prevailing planning and building activities, as well as the social relations between these stakeholders. The collaborative planning process is then elaborated by exploring the social dynamics and learned practices of the local residents.
Keywords: summerhouses, suburbanization, pragmatic planning, collaborative planning, Tartu, Estonia
Available at: http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMgr/MGR_2015_04.pdf
“Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities. East Meets West”
Edited by: Tiit Tammaru, Szymon Marcińczak, Maarten van Ham and Sako Musterd
The rich and the poor are living at increasing distance from each other, and this is threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. Increasing inequality in response to globalisation, the restructuring of the economy and the labour market, neo-liberal politics and declining investments in the social rental housing sector are direct causes of the increasing segregation.
This study compares the situation in 2001 to that in 2011 for thirteen European cities – Amsterdam, Athens, Budapest, London, Milan, Madrid, Oslo, Prague, Riga, Stockholm, Tallinn, Vienna and Vilnius. Social mixing is declining in many areas and the multi-factor approach used links segregation to four underlying universal structural factors: social inequalities, global city status, welfare regimes and housing systems. Hypothetical segregation levels derived from those factors are compared to actual segregation levels in all cities.
Does Ethnicity Matter in Intentions to Study Abroad: Analysis of High School Students in Estonia
Enel Pungas, Kadri Täht, Anu Realo and Tiit Tammaru
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2015.1059739
Abstract: This paper examines factors that shape intentions to study abroad. Previous research highlights the importance of various forms of capital—human, economic, social, cultural, and mobility capital—as well as personality traits in the formation of the intention to complete education in foreign countries. Our specific focus is on ethnic differences in going to study abroad. The data comes from a representative survey of high school graduates in Estonia. We apply multilevel binary regression in order to capture both individual and school effects in the formation of study intentions. Our key findings reveal, first, that there exist significant ethnic differences in the willingness to continue studies abroad despite controlling for individual characteristics, including various forms of capital and personality traits. Second, ethnic differences disappear once we control for the study language of the school. The institutional context thus plays an important role in the formation of ethnic differences in educational aspirations.
Online access: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2015.1059739#abstract
“Changing patterns of residential and workplace segregation in the Stockholm metropolitan area”
Szymon Marcińczak, Tiit Tammaru, Magnus Strömgren & Urban Lindgren
Urban Geography, 2015. DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2015.1012364
Abstract: Immigrant–native segregation is present in the spaces in which individuals from different ethnic/racial groups practice their everyday lives; interact with others and develop their ethnic, social and spatial networks. The overwhelming majority of academic research on immigrant segregation has focused on the residential domain, thus largely overlooking other arenas of daily interaction. The present study contributes to the emerging literature on immigrant residential and workplace segregation by examining changes in patterns of residential and workplace segregation over time. We draw our data from the Stockholm metropolitan region, Sweden’s main port of entry for immigrants. The results suggest a close association between residential and workplace segregation. Immigrant groups that are more segregated at home are also more segregated in workplace neighborhoods. More importantly, we found that a changing segregation level in one domain tends to involve a similar trend in the other domain.
Online access: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02723638.2015.1012364