New article about collaborative planning published!

Planning post-summurbia: From spontaneous pragmatism to collaborative planning?

Moravian Geographical Reports, 2015, 23(4), p 36-46

Mari Nuga, Pille Metspalu, Anette Org, Kadri Leetmaa

Abstract: The possibilities to apply collaborative planning frameworks in formerly strictly planned areas that have experienced spontaneous transformations since the demise of the Soviet Union are examined in this paper. The enquiry is based on a case study of the Tartu region in Estonia, former socialist summerhouse settlements (‘summurbia’), which are experiencing a transition towards permanent residence resulting in a new yearround form of suburbia. Both the residents and local planning authorities were interviewed in order to understand the prevailing planning and building activities, as well as the social relations between these stakeholders. The collaborative planning process is then elaborated by exploring the social dynamics and learned practices of the local residents.

Keywords: summerhouses, suburbanization, pragmatic planning, collaborative planning, Tartu, Estonia

Available at:

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Book about segregation in 13 European capital cities published

Segregation_book“Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities. East Meets West”

Edited by: Tiit Tammaru, Szymon Marcińczak, Maarten van Ham and Sako Musterd

Routledge 2015

The rich and the poor are living at increasing distance from each other, and this is threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. Increasing inequality in response to globalisation, the restructuring of the economy and the labour market, neo-liberal politics and declining investments in the social rental housing sector are direct causes of the increasing segregation.

This study compares the situation in 2001 to that in 2011 for thirteen European cities – Amsterdam, Athens, Budapest, London, Milan, Madrid, Oslo, Prague, Riga, Stockholm, Tallinn, Vienna and Vilnius.  Social mixing is declining in many areas and the multi-factor approach used links segregation to four underlying universal structural factors: social inequalities, global city status, welfare regimes and housing systems. Hypothetical segregation levels derived from those factors are compared to actual segregation levels in all cities.

This book will be a key reference on increasing segregation and will provide insights to students, researchers and policy makers who are interested in the spatial dimension of social inequality in European cities.

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New article about studying abroad

Does Ethnicity Matter in Intentions to Study Abroad: Analysis of High School Students in Estonia

Enel Pungas, Kadri Täht, Anu Realo and Tiit Tammaru  

Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2015.1059739

Abstract: This paper examines factors that shape intentions to study abroad. Previous research highlights the importance of various forms of capital—human, economic, social, cultural, and mobility capital—as well as personality traits in the formation of the intention to complete education in foreign countries. Our specific focus is on ethnic differences in going to study abroad. The data comes from a representative survey of high school graduates in Estonia. We apply multilevel binary regression in order to capture both individual and school effects in the formation of study intentions. Our key findings reveal, first, that there exist significant ethnic differences in the willingness to continue studies abroad despite controlling for individual characteristics, including various forms of capital and personality traits. Second, ethnic differences disappear once we control for the study language of the school. The institutional context thus plays an important role in the formation of ethnic differences in educational aspirations.

Online access:

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New article published

“Changing patterns of residential and workplace segregation in the Stockholm metropolitan area”

Szymon Marcińczak, Tiit Tammaru, Magnus Strömgren & Urban Lindgren

Urban Geography, 2015.  DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2015.1012364

Abstract: Immigrant–native segregation is present in the spaces in which individuals from different ethnic/racial groups practice their everyday lives; interact with others and develop their ethnic, social and spatial networks. The overwhelming majority of academic research on immigrant segregation has focused on the residential domain, thus largely overlooking other arenas of daily interaction. The present study contributes to the emerging literature on immigrant residential and workplace segregation by examining changes in patterns of residential and workplace segregation over time. We draw our data from the Stockholm metropolitan region, Sweden’s main port of entry for immigrants. The results suggest a close association between residential and workplace segregation. Immigrant groups that are more segregated at home are also more segregated in workplace neighborhoods. More importantly, we found that a changing segregation level in one domain tends to involve a similar trend in the other domain.

Online access:

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Dr. Daniel B. Hess will study socialist-era housing in Baltic States

Dr. Daniel B. Hess from the School of Architecture and Planning in Buffalo, New York will join our research team  for two years in January 2016.

Daniel B. Hess was awarded through the European Commission’s Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions program to foster transnational and interdisciplinary research with a fellowship in the “Global Fellowship” category, in which researchers from non-European Union institutions bring research projects to Europe’s universities.

Professor Hess’s work will contribute to the planning and design of the Soviet-era estates in Baltic states – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Soviet-era tower buildings are the main heritages from the Soviet period and are very common everywhere in Baltic states. Renewing those areas nowadays is the main question in urban planning:  soviet areas need a complex insight in order to keep them attractive, maintain life quality and social diversity  in the future.

Hess’s work will involve reasearch in the actual planning of the Soviet areas – interviews with the planners from the soviet period and also the research of the original planning documents and maps of the housing areas in the Baltic states archives. In addition to historical analysis, Hess will produce a set of recommendations for the maintenance and redevelopment of these housing estates.

For more information:

In Estonian

Our previous work with Daniel B. Hess:

Kadri Leetmaa, Tiit Tammaru, Daniel Baldwin Hess (2015). Preferences Toward Neighbor Ethnicity and Affluence: Evidence from an Inherited Dual Ethnic Context in Post-Soviet Tartu. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105(1), 162 – 182.

Hess, Daniel B.; Tammaru, Tiit; Leetmaa, Kadri (2012). Ethnicdifferences in housing in post-Soviet Tartu, Estonia. Cities, 29(5), 327 – 333

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“Mitmekesine Põhja-Tallinn” näituse avamine 02.12

Oled oodatud DIVERCITIES projekti raames läbi viidud fotokonkursi „Mitmekesine Põhja-Tallinn“ näituse avamisele 02. detsembril algusega kell 19 Kamamajas Põhja-Tallinnas.

DIVERCITIES on Euroopa Komisjoni rahastatud 7. Raamprogrammi uurimisprojekt, mis hõlmab 14 Euroopa linna ning mida juhib meie hea koostööpartner prof. Ronald van Kempen Utrechti Ülikoolist. Projekt tõdeb, et Euroopa on ühelt poolt oma arengus stagneerumas ja teiselt poolt on linnad on muutunud järjest mitmekesisemaks. Mitmekesisus võib olla üheks arengupiduriks, millega kaasnevad väga paljud probleemid, sh linnade fragmenteerumine ja kasvav ruumiline segregatsioon. Projekti eesmärk on aga otsida, kuidas rakendada mitmekesisus Euroopa linnade ja riikide arenguvankri ette.

Näituse avamine on avalik üritus ja selle kava näeb välja selline:

  1. DIVERCITIES projekti lühikene tutvustus
  2. Fotonäituse avamine, võidutööde tutvustus ja auhindade üleandmine
  3. Jana Kask live
  4. Arutelu Põhja-Tallinna tulevikust.

Vestlusringis osalevad prof. Rainer Kattel (Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, innovatsiooni ja valitsemise professor) ja Piet Boerefijni (Toidupank, juhataja), arutelu juhib Kaidi Õis (Põhja-Tallinna linnaosavalitsus, arhitekt)

Fotosid saate eelvaadata siit:

Ürituse kohta saad lisainfot siit:

Kui Sul pole kama, millises suunas Tallinn areneb, siis tule 02.12 Kamamajja!

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New articles published!

“Strategies to Cope with Shrinkage in the Lower End of the Urban Hierarchy in Estonia and Central Germany”
Kadri Leetmaa, Agnes Kriszan, Mari Nuga & Joachim Burdack (2015).

European Planning Studies, 23(1), Special Issue: Responding to Tough Times: Policy and Planning Strategies in Shrinking Cities

Abstract: Population shrinkage has become an unavoidable process in many cities and calls for new planning approaches. Typically, economic restructuring causes small urban centres in peripheral locations to lose economic functions and population. In small towns however, social capital has been considered as a specific resource. In this article, we focus on small postsocialist towns in Estonia and Central Germany that have mostly experienced severe shrinkage since the end of state socialism, especially during the first transition decade. We aim to clarify to what extent local planning strategies accept the ongoing shrinkage and how various forms of local social capital have contributed to these strategies and the development of the localities in general. Interviews with different stakeholders in selected towns in Estonia and Germany revealed that shrinkage has not been systematically accepted in local planning. Instead, planning is strongly steered by the external financial resources to strengthen the remaining urbanity. In all towns, specific key development niches have been found in the 2000s to compensate for the peripherality. We also demonstrate that local public institutions need to adjust their governance culture to the existing specific local forms of social capital in order to achieve synergy between local actors.

“Preferences Toward Neighbor Ethnicity and Affluence: Evidence from an Inherited Dual Ethnic Context in Post-Soviet Tartu, Estonia”
Kadri Leetmaa, Tiit Tammaru & Daniel Baldwin Hess (2014)

Annals of the Association of American Geographers.

Abstract: In the post-Soviet era, cities in Central and Eastern Europe inherited a rather undifferentiated sociospatial urban landscape that contrasts with the highly segregated cities in Western Europe and North America. In the Soviet era, ethnic segregation emerged as migrants were prioritized in public housing allocation. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, however, changed the economic and political position of those in-migrants. This study explores how inherited segregation patterns have evolved in the city of Tartu, Estonia. We use data from (1) 1998, 2008, and 2013 municipal surveys about stated preferences with regard to residential settings for the two main ethno-linguistic groups in Estonia (the Estonian majority and the mainly Russian-speaking minority population), and (2) the 2000 and 2011 national census that allows us to track changes in actual segregation patterns. We study two dimensions of preferences and segregation—ethnicity and neighbor affluence—and apply bivariate probit regression for the analysis of stated preferences. We detect a stronger preference among the majority population to live in its own language environment compared to minorities. Minority avoidance attitudes were strongest immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union and restoration of Estonia’s statehood; by the end of the 2000s the preferences of the two groups toward neighbor ethnicity converged. Members of the majority population, however, prefer affluent environments more than minorities do. Despite converging preferences, the actual levels of segregation have increased in Tartu. This suggests that socioeconomic differences drive patterns of ethnic segregation even when preferences with regard to ethnicity have become more tolerant.

Online access:

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New article published: “Ethnic segmentation in leisure time activities in Estonia”

“Ethnic segmentation in leisure time activities in Estonia”
Kristiina Kamenik, Tiit Tammaru, Ott Toomet
Leisure Studies, published online July 22

This paper examines the differences between the leisure time activities of members of the minority and majority populations of Estonia. Because people only meet when they undertake similar activities, it is important for social cohesion to identify the kinds of activities that different ethnic groups engage in during their free time. The data for this study were obtained from the Estonian Time Use Surveys of 2000 and 2010. In this paper, we analyse rates of participation in various cultural events, entertainment activities, outdoor recreation and sport. Our analysis reveals important ethnic differences in almost all leisure activities that partly stem from the uneven distribution of minorities over settlement types. Less than half of the differences relate to socio-economic status and individual wealth. The rest of ethnic segmentation in leisure activities can be attributed to
preferences, differential residential patterns of ethnic groups over Estonia’s regions and the feeling of being a stranger in leisure time places where other ethnic groups are already over-represented.

Keywords: ethnicity; leisure time; segmentation; Time Use Survey; activitybased analysis; Estonia

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3rd Meeting DIVERCITIES Consortium Tallinn, 29 June – 1 July 2014

3rd meeting DIVERCITIES Consortium will be held in Tallinn, 29 June – 1 July 2014. The developments and results of current report and the following strategy for the next will be discussed. Also, presentations will be carried out regarding said reports. See the whole schedule of the consortium below.

FINAL Agenda Tallinn 29 June-1 July 2014

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New article published: „Safe life in the suburbs?Crime and perceptions of safety in new residential developments in Prague’s hinterland, Czech Republic”

Safe life in the suburbs?Crime and perceptions of safety in new residential developments in Prague’s hinterland, Czech Republic

Jana Temelová, Jakub Novák & Jana Jíchová

European Urban and Regional Studies, Published online June 11

Despite a rich body of literature dealing with suburbanization across Central and East Europe, the issues of crime and safety in residential suburbs have not been addressed. At the same time it is obvious that the existing knowledge on suburban crime derived mainly from Western experience cannot be simply transferred to the post-socialist transition context. This research investigates the issues of crime and safety in new residential neighbourhoods in the hinterland of Prague, the Czech Republic. Suburbanites’ fear of crime and feeling of safety are discussed in the context of registered crime patterns in the Prague metropolitan region. The research draws on data gathered in a questionnaire survey of newcomers to suburban housing. The findings confirm the generally high feelings of safety in low-crime suburban districts. Our analysis further showed that age, previous victimization and length of residency are the main determinants of fear of crime in Prague’s suburban communities.

Keywords: Czech Republic, fear of crime, new residential developments, Prague, suburbanization

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