Dr. Daniel B. Hess will study socialist-era housing in Baltic States

Dr. Daniel B. Hess from the School of Architecture and Planning in Buffalo, New York will join our research team  for two years in January 2016.

Daniel B. Hess was awarded through the European Commission’s Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions program to foster transnational and interdisciplinary research with a fellowship in the “Global Fellowship” category, in which researchers from non-European Union institutions bring research projects to Europe’s universities.

Professor Hess’s work will contribute to the planning and design of the Soviet-era estates in Baltic states – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Soviet-era tower buildings are the main heritages from the Soviet period and are very common everywhere in Baltic states. Renewing those areas nowadays is the main question in urban planning:  soviet areas need a complex insight in order to keep them attractive, maintain life quality and social diversity  in the future.

Hess’s work will involve reasearch in the actual planning of the Soviet areas – interviews with the planners from the soviet period and also the research of the original planning documents and maps of the housing areas in the Baltic states archives. In addition to historical analysis, Hess will produce a set of recommendations for the maintenance and redevelopment of these housing estates.

For more information:

http://www.buffalo.edu/ubreporter/research/news.host.html/content/shared/university/news/ub-reporter-articles/stories/2015/04/hess_fellowship_baltics.detail.html

In Estonian

https://www.ut.ee/et/uudised/new-yorgi-teadlane-tuleb-eestisse-magalarajoone-uurima

Our previous work with Daniel B. Hess:

Kadri Leetmaa, Tiit Tammaru, Daniel Baldwin Hess (2015). Preferences Toward Neighbor Ethnicity and Affluence: Evidence from an Inherited Dual Ethnic Context in Post-Soviet Tartu. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105(1), 162 – 182.

Hess, Daniel B.; Tammaru, Tiit; Leetmaa, Kadri (2012). Ethnicdifferences in housing in post-Soviet Tartu, Estonia. Cities, 29(5), 327 – 333

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“Mitmekesine Põhja-Tallinn” näituse avamine 02.12

Oled oodatud DIVERCITIES projekti raames läbi viidud fotokonkursi „Mitmekesine Põhja-Tallinn“ näituse avamisele 02. detsembril algusega kell 19 Kamamajas Põhja-Tallinnas.

DIVERCITIES on Euroopa Komisjoni rahastatud 7. Raamprogrammi uurimisprojekt, mis hõlmab 14 Euroopa linna ning mida juhib meie hea koostööpartner prof. Ronald van Kempen Utrechti Ülikoolist. Projekt tõdeb, et Euroopa on ühelt poolt oma arengus stagneerumas ja teiselt poolt on linnad on muutunud järjest mitmekesisemaks. Mitmekesisus võib olla üheks arengupiduriks, millega kaasnevad väga paljud probleemid, sh linnade fragmenteerumine ja kasvav ruumiline segregatsioon. Projekti eesmärk on aga otsida, kuidas rakendada mitmekesisus Euroopa linnade ja riikide arenguvankri ette.

Näituse avamine on avalik üritus ja selle kava näeb välja selline:

  1. DIVERCITIES projekti lühikene tutvustus
  2. Fotonäituse avamine, võidutööde tutvustus ja auhindade üleandmine
  3. Jana Kask live
  4. Arutelu Põhja-Tallinna tulevikust.

Vestlusringis osalevad prof. Rainer Kattel (Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, innovatsiooni ja valitsemise professor) ja Piet Boerefijni (Toidupank, juhataja), arutelu juhib Kaidi Õis (Põhja-Tallinna linnaosavalitsus, arhitekt)

Fotosid saate eelvaadata siit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wcUZTXkGdKA

Ürituse kohta saad lisainfot siit: https://www.facebook.com/events/302057596655011/?ref=5

Kui Sul pole kama, millises suunas Tallinn areneb, siis tule 02.12 Kamamajja!

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New articles published!

“Strategies to Cope with Shrinkage in the Lower End of the Urban Hierarchy in Estonia and Central Germany”
Kadri Leetmaa, Agnes Kriszan, Mari Nuga & Joachim Burdack (2015).

European Planning Studies, 23(1), Special Issue: Responding to Tough Times: Policy and Planning Strategies in Shrinking Cities

Abstract: Population shrinkage has become an unavoidable process in many cities and calls for new planning approaches. Typically, economic restructuring causes small urban centres in peripheral locations to lose economic functions and population. In small towns however, social capital has been considered as a specific resource. In this article, we focus on small postsocialist towns in Estonia and Central Germany that have mostly experienced severe shrinkage since the end of state socialism, especially during the first transition decade. We aim to clarify to what extent local planning strategies accept the ongoing shrinkage and how various forms of local social capital have contributed to these strategies and the development of the localities in general. Interviews with different stakeholders in selected towns in Estonia and Germany revealed that shrinkage has not been systematically accepted in local planning. Instead, planning is strongly steered by the external financial resources to strengthen the remaining urbanity. In all towns, specific key development niches have been found in the 2000s to compensate for the peripherality. We also demonstrate that local public institutions need to adjust their governance culture to the existing specific local forms of social capital in order to achieve synergy between local actors.

“Preferences Toward Neighbor Ethnicity and Affluence: Evidence from an Inherited Dual Ethnic Context in Post-Soviet Tartu, Estonia”
Kadri Leetmaa, Tiit Tammaru & Daniel Baldwin Hess (2014)

Annals of the Association of American Geographers.

Abstract: In the post-Soviet era, cities in Central and Eastern Europe inherited a rather undifferentiated sociospatial urban landscape that contrasts with the highly segregated cities in Western Europe and North America. In the Soviet era, ethnic segregation emerged as migrants were prioritized in public housing allocation. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, however, changed the economic and political position of those in-migrants. This study explores how inherited segregation patterns have evolved in the city of Tartu, Estonia. We use data from (1) 1998, 2008, and 2013 municipal surveys about stated preferences with regard to residential settings for the two main ethno-linguistic groups in Estonia (the Estonian majority and the mainly Russian-speaking minority population), and (2) the 2000 and 2011 national census that allows us to track changes in actual segregation patterns. We study two dimensions of preferences and segregation—ethnicity and neighbor affluence—and apply bivariate probit regression for the analysis of stated preferences. We detect a stronger preference among the majority population to live in its own language environment compared to minorities. Minority avoidance attitudes were strongest immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union and restoration of Estonia’s statehood; by the end of the 2000s the preferences of the two groups toward neighbor ethnicity converged. Members of the majority population, however, prefer affluent environments more than minorities do. Despite converging preferences, the actual levels of segregation have increased in Tartu. This suggests that socioeconomic differences drive patterns of ethnic segregation even when preferences with regard to ethnicity have become more tolerant.

Online access:

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00045608.2014.962973#.VGu7Vk0cTIU

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New article published: “Ethnic segmentation in leisure time activities in Estonia”

“Ethnic segmentation in leisure time activities in Estonia”
Kristiina Kamenik, Tiit Tammaru, Ott Toomet
Leisure Studies, published online July 22

http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/3YTWJWK2x5cuD85gSPZb/full

This paper examines the differences between the leisure time activities of members of the minority and majority populations of Estonia. Because people only meet when they undertake similar activities, it is important for social cohesion to identify the kinds of activities that different ethnic groups engage in during their free time. The data for this study were obtained from the Estonian Time Use Surveys of 2000 and 2010. In this paper, we analyse rates of participation in various cultural events, entertainment activities, outdoor recreation and sport. Our analysis reveals important ethnic differences in almost all leisure activities that partly stem from the uneven distribution of minorities over settlement types. Less than half of the differences relate to socio-economic status and individual wealth. The rest of ethnic segmentation in leisure activities can be attributed to
preferences, differential residential patterns of ethnic groups over Estonia’s regions and the feeling of being a stranger in leisure time places where other ethnic groups are already over-represented.

Keywords: ethnicity; leisure time; segmentation; Time Use Survey; activitybased analysis; Estonia

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3rd Meeting DIVERCITIES Consortium Tallinn, 29 June – 1 July 2014

3rd meeting DIVERCITIES Consortium will be held in Tallinn, 29 June – 1 July 2014. The developments and results of current report and the following strategy for the next will be discussed. Also, presentations will be carried out regarding said reports. See the whole schedule of the consortium below.

FINAL Agenda Tallinn 29 June-1 July 2014

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New article published: „Safe life in the suburbs?Crime and perceptions of safety in new residential developments in Prague’s hinterland, Czech Republic”

Safe life in the suburbs?Crime and perceptions of safety in new residential developments in Prague’s hinterland, Czech Republic

Jana Temelová, Jakub Novák & Jana Jíchová

European Urban and Regional Studies, Published online June 11

http://eur.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/06/10/0969776414534254

Despite a rich body of literature dealing with suburbanization across Central and East Europe, the issues of crime and safety in residential suburbs have not been addressed. At the same time it is obvious that the existing knowledge on suburban crime derived mainly from Western experience cannot be simply transferred to the post-socialist transition context. This research investigates the issues of crime and safety in new residential neighbourhoods in the hinterland of Prague, the Czech Republic. Suburbanites’ fear of crime and feeling of safety are discussed in the context of registered crime patterns in the Prague metropolitan region. The research draws on data gathered in a questionnaire survey of newcomers to suburban housing. The findings confirm the generally high feelings of safety in low-crime suburban districts. Our analysis further showed that age, previous victimization and length of residency are the main determinants of fear of crime in Prague’s suburban communities.

Keywords: Czech Republic, fear of crime, new residential developments, Prague, suburbanization

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New article published: „Is institutional trust related to pro-immigrant attitudes? A pan-European Evidence”

Is institutional trust related to pro-immigrant attitudes? A pan-European Evidence

Vivika Halapuu, Tiiu Paas, Tiit Tammaru & Aire Schütz

Eurasian Geography and Economics, Published online May 12

http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/mrjhcWIhHTkxiGTej576/full

This paper examines the factors that are related to attitudes toward immigrants in Europe, with a particular focus on the role of institutional trust in shaping these attitudes. We go one step further compared to previous studies by investigating separately two different  groups of people – members of the ethnic majority and ethnic minority populations in European countries. We use data from the European Social Survey fifth round database for 25 countries. The results of the paper show that trust in institutions is the variable that is most strongly associated with the attitudes toward immigrants implying on the importance of fair and supportive operation of political institutions to move toward more immigrant-tolerant environment and become an attractive destination country in the global competition of talents. The findings also indicate that not all of the main determinants of the attitudes toward immigrants drawn from the most common theoretical explanations seem to explain the variation of the attitudes toward immigrants among ethnic minority populations the same way as they explain it in the case of ethnic majority populations.

Keywords: immigration; attitudes; trust in institutions; minority/majority populations

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12. – 14. September 2013 Final Conference: SHRINKING CITIES IN EUROPE

 

The conference ‚Cities Regrowing Smaller‘ is dealing with one of the main challenges of contemporary urban development in many industrialized countries. At the beginning of the 21st century, the shrinking cities phenomenon is widespread in Europe and worldwide. In the affected areas, several causes for population loss can be traced, such as demographic change, outmigration, structural changes in the economy, and suburbanization. These phenomena lead to an urban decline of sometimes severe extent and cause massive problems to the cities. To deal with the results of demographic, economic and physical contraction processes and to plan for the future of considerably smaller but nevertheless livable cities accordingly is one of the most challenging tasks in the near future. The conference thus will bring together experts from different arenas to share their knowledge on the shrinking cities process and to discuss possible approaches to deal with shrinkage. Since both, the extent of shrinkage as well as the local responses, can differ considerably from one city to another, case study reports will provide insights into different cities’ management of the situation.

More information about the COST Action TU0803 Cities Regrowing Smaller can be found on the following page: http://www.shrinkingcities.eu/index.php?id=87

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25th Conference of the Estonian Statistical Society “Demographic processes in the Baltic Sea region in the 21st century”

 

The 25th Conference of the Estonian Statistical Society will take place on 12–13 November 2013, in the Main Conference Hall of the National Library of Estonia. The theme of this year’s conference is “Demographic Processes in the Baltic Sea Region in the 21st Century”.

The conference is linked with the joint event of the statistical offices of Baltic countries, the Baltic Seminar. Its participants are welcome to attend the presentations given at the conference of the Statistical Society on 12 November. On 13 November, the Baltic Seminar will take place in the Corner Hall of the National Library of Estonia.

Many European Union countries have similar demographic trends – the population is ageing, and in Eastern Europe it is also decreasing. This trend is characteristic of the 21st century and probably quite inevitable, unless the natural demographic development is influenced by some drastic events. The main aim of the conference is to identify the factors that influence demographic processes today and to analyse how the changes in population composition are reflected in people’s social environment and family life as well as in the country as a whole. We will discuss which developments should be considered negative, and if and how the unfavourable trends could be changed. What is the role of the state, the community, and every individual in this process?

More information – http://www.stat.ee/25th-conference-of-the-estonian-statistical-society

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DIVERCITIES – Governing Urban Diversity: Creating Social Cohesion, Social Mobility and Economic Performance in Today’s Hyper-diversified Cities

CMUS is representing the University of Tartu in a collaborative project during the period of four years (1 March 2013 to 28 February 2017)

Introduction: European cities today are more diverse than ever before. Immigration, socio-economic inequalities, spatial segregation and a diversity of identities and lifestyles are all contributing factors. The challenges faced by urban policymakers and institutions to meet the needs of Europe’s increasingly diverse population are numerous and complex.

The principal aim of DIVERCITIES is to examine how Europe can benefit from diversity. The project’s central hypothesis is that urban diversity is an asset.  It can inspire creativity and innovation. Create cities that are more liveable and harmonious. Stimulate local and national economies and make European cities more competitive.

Urban diversity can be a strength rather than a burden. It can positively affect social cohesion, social mobility and economic performance. But a re-think of public policies and governance models is needed to make more intelligent use of diversity’s potential.

A European research team, headed by Utrecht University will conduct a comparative study in 13 European cities. Research will also be carried out in Toronto (Canada), one of the world’s most diverse cities.

Case studies will be examined where diversity was leveraged to achieve social and socio-economic benefits. The role of urban policies and governance arrangements in stimulating social and economic progress will also be critically analysed.

Comparative field research, educational programmes, cross-evaluation sessions and an international policy conference are the key components of this four-year project.

DIVERCITIES is financed by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme.

More information can be found: http://www.urbandivercities.eu/

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