New article published: „Is institutional trust related to pro-immigrant attitudes? A pan-European Evidence”

Is institutional trust related to pro-immigrant attitudes? A pan-European Evidence

Vivika Halapuu, Tiiu Paas, Tiit Tammaru & Aire Schütz

Eurasian Geography and Economics, Published online May 12

This paper examines the factors that are related to attitudes toward immigrants in Europe, with a particular focus on the role of institutional trust in shaping these attitudes. We go one step further compared to previous studies by investigating separately two different  groups of people – members of the ethnic majority and ethnic minority populations in European countries. We use data from the European Social Survey fifth round database for 25 countries. The results of the paper show that trust in institutions is the variable that is most strongly associated with the attitudes toward immigrants implying on the importance of fair and supportive operation of political institutions to move toward more immigrant-tolerant environment and become an attractive destination country in the global competition of talents. The findings also indicate that not all of the main determinants of the attitudes toward immigrants drawn from the most common theoretical explanations seem to explain the variation of the attitudes toward immigrants among ethnic minority populations the same way as they explain it in the case of ethnic majority populations.

Keywords: immigration; attitudes; trust in institutions; minority/majority populations

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12. – 14. September 2013 Final Conference: SHRINKING CITIES IN EUROPE


The conference ‚Cities Regrowing Smaller‘ is dealing with one of the main challenges of contemporary urban development in many industrialized countries. At the beginning of the 21st century, the shrinking cities phenomenon is widespread in Europe and worldwide. In the affected areas, several causes for population loss can be traced, such as demographic change, outmigration, structural changes in the economy, and suburbanization. These phenomena lead to an urban decline of sometimes severe extent and cause massive problems to the cities. To deal with the results of demographic, economic and physical contraction processes and to plan for the future of considerably smaller but nevertheless livable cities accordingly is one of the most challenging tasks in the near future. The conference thus will bring together experts from different arenas to share their knowledge on the shrinking cities process and to discuss possible approaches to deal with shrinkage. Since both, the extent of shrinkage as well as the local responses, can differ considerably from one city to another, case study reports will provide insights into different cities’ management of the situation.

More information about the COST Action TU0803 Cities Regrowing Smaller can be found on the following page:

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25th Conference of the Estonian Statistical Society “Demographic processes in the Baltic Sea region in the 21st century”


The 25th Conference of the Estonian Statistical Society will take place on 12–13 November 2013, in the Main Conference Hall of the National Library of Estonia. The theme of this year’s conference is “Demographic Processes in the Baltic Sea Region in the 21st Century”.

The conference is linked with the joint event of the statistical offices of Baltic countries, the Baltic Seminar. Its participants are welcome to attend the presentations given at the conference of the Statistical Society on 12 November. On 13 November, the Baltic Seminar will take place in the Corner Hall of the National Library of Estonia.

Many European Union countries have similar demographic trends – the population is ageing, and in Eastern Europe it is also decreasing. This trend is characteristic of the 21st century and probably quite inevitable, unless the natural demographic development is influenced by some drastic events. The main aim of the conference is to identify the factors that influence demographic processes today and to analyse how the changes in population composition are reflected in people’s social environment and family life as well as in the country as a whole. We will discuss which developments should be considered negative, and if and how the unfavourable trends could be changed. What is the role of the state, the community, and every individual in this process?

More information –

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DIVERCITIES – Governing Urban Diversity: Creating Social Cohesion, Social Mobility and Economic Performance in Today’s Hyper-diversified Cities

CMUS is representing the University of Tartu in a collaborative project during the period of four years (1 March 2013 to 28 February 2017)

Introduction: European cities today are more diverse than ever before. Immigration, socio-economic inequalities, spatial segregation and a diversity of identities and lifestyles are all contributing factors. The challenges faced by urban policymakers and institutions to meet the needs of Europe’s increasingly diverse population are numerous and complex.

The principal aim of DIVERCITIES is to examine how Europe can benefit from diversity. The project’s central hypothesis is that urban diversity is an asset.  It can inspire creativity and innovation. Create cities that are more liveable and harmonious. Stimulate local and national economies and make European cities more competitive.

Urban diversity can be a strength rather than a burden. It can positively affect social cohesion, social mobility and economic performance. But a re-think of public policies and governance models is needed to make more intelligent use of diversity’s potential.

A European research team, headed by Utrecht University will conduct a comparative study in 13 European cities. Research will also be carried out in Toronto (Canada), one of the world’s most diverse cities.

Case studies will be examined where diversity was leveraged to achieve social and socio-economic benefits. The role of urban policies and governance arrangements in stimulating social and economic progress will also be critically analysed.

Comparative field research, educational programmes, cross-evaluation sessions and an international policy conference are the key components of this four-year project.

DIVERCITIES is financed by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme.

More information can be found:

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5th international urban geographies of post-communist states conference

11-13 September, 2013: 5th international urban geographies of post-communist states conference URBAN RESEARCH, URBAN THEORY AND PLANNING PRACTICE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION was held in Tbilisi, Georgia. More than 80 urban researchers from CEE region as well as Western Europe whose research focuses on CEE cities took part of the event, including several researchers and PhD students from CMUS, University of Tartu. Conference brought together new ideas of conceptualising urban change in CEE cities, as well as most recent empirical findings from different cities in the region. Conference was followed by excursion to Caucasian region.

Presentations by researchers and  PhD students of CMUS, University of Tartu:

Keynote lecture by Jana Temelová
“Princess Cinderella? Multiple transformations in the CEE inner city”


Tiit Tammaru et al.
Similar but different: patterns of social segregation and mix in the fast-track reforming post-socialist countries “


Anneli Kährik et al
“Inner city change: income and age polarization in Tallinn and Prague”


Jakub Novák
“Exploring the mobility transition in post-socialist Central and Eastern Europe


Szymon Marcińczak
“From socialism to capitalism two decades of housing inequalities in Bucharest, Romania”


Kati Kadarik et al. (PhD student)
“Neighbourhood change: perceptions of long-term and new residents in post-socialist second-tier cities”


Pille Metspalu (PhD student)
“Socialist urban planning in practice: incomplete plan implementation in the prefabricated housing block estates of Lasnamäe, Tallinn and Annelinn, Tartu”


Kristiina Kamenik (PhD student)
“The ethnic segmentation of leisure activities: differences in leisure behaviour of Estonians and Russians in Estonia “


See the whole program
See Cities After Transition (CAT) network webpage

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Presentations and photos from the ,,Mobility, segregation and neighbourhoods’ change” seminar

Research seminar “Mobility, segregation and neighborhoods’ change” took place on 14-15 March 2013 in Tartu. You can see the programme and presentations from here and more photos from here.


Seminar participants, 15.03.2013

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14-15 March, 2013: An international research seminar “Mobility, segregation and neighborhoods’ change” will be held in Tartu, at the Department of Geography

The seminar opens the new 6-years institutional grant “Spatial Population Mobility and Geographical Changes in Urban Regions”.

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