- Tammaru, T; Kontuly, T (2011), Selectivity and Destinations of Ethnic Minorities Leaving the Main Gateway Cities of Estonia. Population, Space and Place, 17, 674–688.
Abstract: Changes in the spatial distribution of minority populations and factors responsible for such changes form an important research topic in the study of the contemporary immigrant societies of Europe and North America. This paper clarifies both the trends and determinants of the spatial redistribution of mainly Russian-speaking ethnic minorities in Estonia by focusing on out-migration from the gateway cities or the main minority concentration areas. We use individual data from the 2000 census. The main results show that the dominant flow of migration among members of ethnic minorities is out of the main gateway cities in Estonia, and this trend is very different from the situation during the Soviet period. All of the personal characteristics that measure intentional ties with the majority population and the host country, such as proficiency in Estonian, having an Estonian partner, and Estonian citizenship, exert a positive influence on both leaving these areas and settling in non-ethnic destinations, while the mere passage of time (generation replacement) has no straightforward infl uence on minority spatial redistribution.
- Van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T. (2011). Ethnic Minority–Majority Unions in Estonia. European Journal of Population, 27(3), 313 – 335.
Abstract: Ethnic minority–majority unions—also referred to as mixed ethnic unions—are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority–majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority–majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority–majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our ﬁndings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority–majority unions.
Keywords: Ethnicity, Country of birth, Generation, Minority–majority unions, Mixed ethnic unions, Estonia
- Temelová, J.; Novák, J.; Ourˇednícˇek, M.; Puldová, P. (2011). Housing Estates in the Czech Republic after Socialism: Various Trajectories and Inner Differentiation. Urban Studies, 48(9) 1811–1834.
Abstract: Growing income differentiation in society, diversification of housing supply and selective population mobility are resulting in increasing socio-spatial differentiation in Czech cities and neighbourhoods during the post-socialist transition. Housing estates are no exception to the processes of urban change. The paper shows that development trajectories of housing estates vary in different parts of the country, in various locations within each city and also within particular housing estates. As segregation in Czech cities takes place mainly within very small areas, statistical analyses usually fail to detect the seeds of social and physical degradation emerging in neighbourhoods and a micro survey is essential. In order to understand the patterns and factors of differentiation, the paper presents case studies from housing estates located in different cities of the Czech Republic.
- Kährik, Anneli; Tammaru, Tiit (2010), Soviet Prefabricated Panel Housing Estates: Areas of Continued Social Mix or Decline? The Case of Tallinn. Housing Studies, 25(2), 201-219. DOI: 10.1080/02673030903561818
Abstract: Cities in the formerly centrally planned countries in the Soviet Union and Central Eastern Europe have transformed rapidly since the political and economic restructuring started in the late 1980s. To date, the main focus of research has been on new urban phenomena, particularly inner-city change and suburbanisation. However, these changes affect only a minority of the population, because most people still live in pre-transition housing stock. This study clarifies population changes in the most distinctive type of housing in the state socialist cities, high-rise prefabricated panel housing estates, in the light of the reform of housing privatisation. Many researchers have assumed that panel housing estates would quickly downgrade in the course of transition towards a market economy. However, the main results of the study show that these areas have maintained a relatively good image and social mix to the present day and that there are no straightforward signs of their socio-economic downgrading or becoming ethnic minority ghettos.
Keywords: Housing privatisation; panel housing; social mix; Tallinn urban region
- Tammaru, T., Strömgren, M., Stjernström, O., Lindgren, U. (2010), Learning through Contact? The Effects on Earnings of Immigrant Exposure to the Native Population. Environment and Planning, A 42, 2938–2955.
Abstract: Factors influencing immigrant labour-market outcomes have received increased scholarly attention lately. A recent research focus has been the effects of residential setting on labour-market outcomes. This study brings a new dimension to this emerging body of research, introducing the role played by workplace composition, in addition to place of residence, in immigrant earnings. Based on Swedish longitudinal register data, ordinary least squares regression is used to examine effects of previous exposure to natives on earnings in three immigrant cohorts (1990, 1995, and 2000) five years after arrival. Besides controlling for individual characteristics and various labour-market attributes, a two-step Heckman correction procedure is applied to take into account the selectivity of entering the Swedish labour market. The main finding of the study is that exposure to the native population at the workplace is more important than residential exposure for predicting immigrant earnings.
- Tammaru, T.; Kumer-Haukanõmm, K.; Anniste, K. (2010). The formation and development of the Estonian diaspora. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(7), 1157 – 1174.
Abstract: The Estonian diaspora was formed by two major, completed, waves of emigration and one further, emerging, wave of out-migration. The first mass emigration started in the mid-nineteenth century and lasted until World War I. During this period, demographic transition was taking place, yet there were limited options for urbanward migration within Estonia. This situation forced many Estonians to look for alternative destinations. Russia attracted migrants to its new agricultural lands and thus the Eastern sub-diaspora of Estonia took shape. The Western sub-diaspora emerged as a result of a second mass emigration in the form of a refugee exodus during World War II. The third and ongoing wave of emigration began at the end of the 1980s, and has broadened the geographical extent of the Western sub-diaspora. This paper outlines the formation of the Estonian sub-diasporas in the East and West, and clarifies the spatial and temporal changes they have undergone. While the formation of the Eastern sub-diaspora is relatively well tudied, there are research gaps on the development of the Western one. This paper presents new archival evidence that documents the formation of the Western sub-diaspora, particularly in relation to the period following the Soviet era. We also present data on emigration since Estonia regained independence. Key findings indicate that the Eastern sub-diaspora continues to contract, while the size of the Western element of the diaspora has remained stable throughout the postwar period. The continued viability of the Western sub-diaspora is a result of new emigration since the collapse of the Soviet Union, but this outwards migration is smaller in scale than the two earlier periods of mass emigration.
Keywords: Estonia; Emigration; Diaspora; Return Migration
- Leetmaa, K.; Tammaru, T.; Anniste, K. (2009), From Priority-led to Market-led Suburbanisation in a post-communist metropolis. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 100(4), 436-453.
Abstract: Recently, Sjoberg and Gentile generalised the priority mechanisms that shaped the settlement systems and individual cities in countries that were formerly centrally planned. The paper adds the metropolitan level to those macro and microlevel approaches, and links the priority approach to a more general theory of the urban life cycle (Van den Berg and colleagues) in order to understand the processes of population change in this group of countries. The empirical content of the paper comes from the Tallinn metropolitan area (TMA), Estonia. We demonstrate through our analysis how the key metropolitan actors (families, companies, and the public sector) guided metropolitan residential change in the course of the late-Soviet (1980s), transition (1990s), and post-transition (present) decades. First, the priorities of the communist regime shaped the spatial structure of the TMA and the residential changes that have occurred in the post-communist period have been affected by the Soviet-era suburban housing stock and areas available for new developments around the city. Second, the passive attitude of the public authorities after 1991 increased the role of business actors in metropolitan dynamics. We exemplify how the changing balance of metropolitan actors interplays with inherited metropolitan space and shapes the residential choices set for families in the TMA.
Keywords: suburbanisation; urban actors; historical legacy; post-Soviet period; Tallinn metropolitan area
- Tammaru, T.; Leetmaa, K.; Silm, S.; Ahas, R. (2009), Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of the New Residential Areas around Tallinn. European Planning Studies, 17(3), 423-439. DOI: 10.1080/09654310802618077
Abstract: New housing construction is the most visible manifestation of the rapid suburbanization process taking place in the former centrally planned countries of Central Eastern Europe. This paper analyses residential housing construction around Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia, in the period 1991-2005. Our data comes from the New Residential Area Survey that was carried out in 2006. The main results of the study reveal that housing construction was modest in the 1990s, but grew rapidly in the 2000s. In comparison with the Soviet period, private interest led new housing construction to take place in areas closer to Tallinn that were earlier reserved for other functions; that is former agricultural and coastal (often military) areas. Instead of the sprawl of detached housing further away from the capital city seen over time, we find increasing in-fills and multifamily housing construction in the 2000s around Tallinn. This leads to changes both in the internal structure (small but merging settlements close to Tallinn are different from the Soviet time compact settlements located all over the rural areas) and functioning (increase in daily commuting) of the metropolitan area. We argue that the transition period ends in the housing market when a new and better balance between public and private interests emerges in Estonia like in Western Europe.
- OUŘEDNÍČEK, M., TEMELOVÁ, J. (2009). Twenty years after Socialism: The transformation of Prague’s inner structure. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai – Sociologia, 1, 9-30.
Abstract: The cities of Central and East Europe have by now passed through 20 years of democracy and market economy. The new political, economic and societal climate brought a revival of urban processes which had been interrupted by forty years of socialism. The article discusses the relevancy of the post-socialist city concept. We search for specific aspects of development of cities influenced by socialism taking the example of urban processes, which have been changing the inner spatial structure of Prague. Globalization, new technology and new forms of work and mobility have similar impacts on urban development on both sides of the former Iron Curtain. However we argue that other aspects, such as the inherited physical and social structure of the socialist city as well as the institutional context of post-socialism, have resulted in a specific form of urban processes, at least during the transformation era, in the majority of European post-socialist countries. Although similar key urban processes are forming the spatial patterns of post-socialist and western cities, they often have different causes, dynamics and consequences in the two contexts.